Video Photo URLs:
Belching Cows and Endless Feedlots: Fixing Cattle’s Climate Issues
By Henry Fountain Photographs and Video by George Steinmetz The New York Times, Oct. 21, 2020
The Business of Burps: Scientists Smell Profit in Cow Emissions
By Adam Satariano The New York Times, May 1, 2020

The Agriculture's Challenge

Emissions: These two powerful gases potent 25-300 times more heat than carbon dioxide.


Chemical Formula: CH4
The lifetime in Atmosphere: 12 years
Global Warming Potential (100-year):
25 times more than CO2

U.S. Methane emissions by sources

Domestic livestock such as cattle, swine, sheep, and goats produce CH4 as part of their normal digestive process. Also, when animal manure is stored or managed in lagoons or holding tanks, CH4 is produced. Because humans raise these animals for food and other products, the emissions are considered human-related. When livestock and manure emissions are combined, the Agriculture sector is the largest source of CH4 emissions in the United States. For more information, see the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks Agriculture chapter.


Nitrous Oxide

Chemical Formula: N2O
The lifetime in Atmosphere: 114 years
Global Warming Potential (100-year):
298 times more than CO2


U.S. Nitrous oxide emissions by sources

Nitrous oxide can result from various agricultural soil management activities, such as the application of synthetic and organic fertilizers and other cropping practices, the management of manure, or the burning of agricultural residues. Agricultural soil management is the largest source of N2O emissions in the United States, accounting for about 77.8 percent of total U.S. N2O emissions in 2018.


Source: US EPA

Methane and Nitrous Oxide: They are from livestock agriculture.

Methane and Nitrous Oxide are 30-300 times more powerful greenhouse gases than Carbon Dioxide

Reducing Ag-Emission by Designing the Next-gen crops

Crop imrpovemnet for less ag-emission 2

The Great Food Challenge

As the world's population reaches 9.7 billion in the year 2050, global crop production will need to double to meet the projected demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel. AFINGEN® develops novel biotechnology platforms for crops to grow faster and healthier and meet the natural resource demand in new sustainable manners.

Enhancing Cattle and Soybean Productivity Protects Brazil amazon rainforest and it's Biodiversity

The Climate Challenge

Understanding Global Warming of 1.5°C

Human activities are estimated to have caused approximately 1.0°C of global warming above pre-industrial levels, with a likely range of 0.8°C to 1.2°C. Global warming is likely to reach 1.5°C between 2030 and 2052 if it continues to increase at the current rate.
Warming from anthropogenic emissions from the pre-industrial period to the present will persist for centuries to millennia and will continue to cause further long-term changes in the climate system, such as sea-level rise, with associated impacts. Climate-related risks for natural and human systems are higher for global warming of 1.5°C than at present but lower than at 2°C. These risks depend on the magnitude and rate of warming, geographic location, levels of development and vulnerability, and on the choices and implementation of adaptation and mitigation options.